de | en


With cooling to the top

Sports and sunshine evoke positive feelings. We love to go outside and enjoy the weather, fresh air and activities. All is fine - up to the moment when we begin to sweat. But so far, everybody was convinced that there was no sweet without sweat.

Therefore, top competitions are carried out in summer – we fly into the sun for training camp – we need hot temperatures. As a former professional athlete and state coach I am quite familiar with the proceedings.

However, a couple of years ago, some sports scientists questioned this paradigm and set up a series of studies with the result that it was better to cool down instead of warm up.

Paradigms usually don’t change quickly. But in the meantime many athletes, coaches and functionaries have recognized that sweating is nothing else but a defense reaction of the body which fights against an increase of its core temperature and associated consequences such as elevated heart frequency, lactate, VO2max, etc. And this process consumes an enormous amount of energy.

What if you saved this amount of energy and used it in your next competition or tournament to get to the top?

Therefore: COOL UP!

Pre-Cooling and Sports Performance - A Meta-Analytical Review

Sabine Stein


Sabine Stein, CEO IdeniXx

Sports scientist, former professional athlete and coach for the team of Baden-Württemberg


Do you have questions? I look forward to your message:



Efficiency confirmed by more than 1000 studies


IdeniXx: Professor Joch, for how long have you been studying the question of cooling in sports?

Professor Joch:
About 18 years ago, I started to investigate on thermoregulation and performance during physical activities. At the time, there were hardly any studies dealing with the topic. This has changed in the meantime.

IdeniXx: What is the present state-of-the-art?

Professor Ückert:
Competitive sports are more and more approaching the limits of human performance. It is therefore important to know that there is an interaction between temperature and energy. In sports, temperature represents an important component vital for physical performance because all human capacities depend on temperature. We could almost foresee that the studies on temperature and performance would lead to the conclusion that results in sports activities were better at lower temperatures or with cooling.

IdeniXx: Don’t these results contradict the traditional opinion of prior warm up? Sometimes you get the impression that some athletes are sweating as if already finished?

Professor Joch:
You are quite right. Fortunately, there are many changes at the moment. Top athletes as Usain Bolt prepare playfully without much physical efforts, without physical exhaustion and without important heat development.

IdeniXx: Is there an increased risk of injuries without warm-up?

Professor Joch:
Scientifically, there is no proof for muscle injuries, pulled muscles, etc. without prior warm-up. Muscular injuries are mainly caused by exhaustion or microdamages.

Professor Ückert:
Heat production by physical work occurs in the muscles and then spreads via the bloodstream in the body. Thus, the muscle is the first part of the body affected by the heat production in the context of muscular work. Therefore, the temperature in the muscle is always higher than the body core temperature. During sports activities, the human muscles are therefore always at „operating temperature“. They are the main heat supplier for the whole body, i.e. to an extent of 60% of the total body temperature under muscular work. So it’s never about producing muscular heat but exactly the opposite, about discharging heat in order to avoid excess heat.

IdeniXx: So warming up without sweating?

Professor Joch:

IdeniXx: What about sweating during sports? Is it also counterproductive?


Professor Ückert:
An important part of the energy transformed in metabolism is lost as heat. To get rid of the heat, the body needs extra energy. Energy that you would need for athletic performance. Thus, it is only logical that studies determined an increase of performance of up to 10% by cooling. In most cases this was achieved by pre-cooling, i.e. cooling prior to sports, because until recently there didn’t exist any possibilities of cooling during sports.

IdeniXx: And now the problem has been solved

Professor Joch:
Correct. IdeniXx cooling textiles with COOLINE technology. Using this technology, performance was improved by up to 10% at ambient temperatures of 30°C. Additionally, our studies confirmed that cooling during breaks had a very positive effect on regeneration.

IdeniXx: Professor Ückert, Professor Joch, many thanks for the interview.



ueckert 9


Prof. Dr. habil. Sandra Ückert


joch 3


Prof. emer. Dr. Winfried Joch

Sports and Applied Training Sciences


Precooling – How does it work?

If you “pre-cool” your body before you start your training or competition on hot days, your body will start at a lower temperature what implies that it needs a longer period of time to heat up and consume energy for sweating. It is important to carry out the pre-cooling process for at least 20 min. If you take less than 20 minutes, the body will not cool down sufficiently. Additionally, it is important to cool with the correct temperature. It will not help to pre-cool with extremely low temperatures.

This is why some studies just didn’t obtain positive results because the cooling temperature was too low. The body tries to fight the low temperatures as it tries to keep its comfort level which is 36.8-37°C . Thus, the opposite effect is achieved by applying temperatures which are far too low. As a result, the body tries to warm up and consumes energy.

All depends on the cooling method and ambient conditions.

With IDENIXX cooling products you usually achieve temperatures between 18-22°C. As the skin temperature amounts to 28-32°C, the process of pre-cooling will lead to an efficient but agreeable cooling. Studies carried out with the COOLINE technology confirmed this effect.


 12190105 10153843525454587 1529221826293799644 n

Motorcycle champion Sandro Cortese during Precooling




Heat protection to wear 1



An example for Formula 1

Not only athletes and football players but also Formula 1 champions use cooling textiles with COOLINE SX3 technology.
The video shows Paul Seaby, teamleader of Lotus Formel 1, explaining the long way from MS to Formula 1



Video: youtube

Heat protection to wear 2



With COOLINE technology and IdeniXx at the TOUR DE FRANCE

The Tour de France has ended and the winners were announced. Once again, one of the greatest challenges  was the heat. Already at the first race in Utrecht, top bikers as Tony Martin had complained about the extreme heat race. Disappointed Martin is reported to have said that the heat had killed him. Therefore, some of the teams went for professional cooling both for warm-up and for regeneration. In particular the Trek Factory Team which  saved precious energy reserves already before the race because they applied pre-cooling with the new performance bike vests and arm coolers. Also IAM Cycling and other teams went for the COOLINE technology.

More on performance bike vests, race bandanas and armcoolers: and



Trek Factory during Precooling at Tour de France


Cold application in high-performance sports

So far, for most of us the subject of cooling was closely related to cold sprays or ice packs. By and by, the range of cooling equipment was extended by cold chambers, such as used by training centers, such as the German Sports Centre in Kienbaum, or cooling drums such as used for regeneration by the German football team. Various studies however repeatedly confirmed significant effects on performance by precooling measures, i.e. cold application before sports and in the breaks (intercooling). In 2010, the German Federal Institute for Sports Sciences published a survey on the scientific evidence of precooling by a number of sports scientists and sport physicians headed by Prof. Dr. Tim Meyer, physician of the German national football team.



Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Krieg, Anne; Meyer, Tim
(2010) ISBN 978-3-86884-513-6